Oops! This site has expired. If you are the site owner, please renew your premium subscription or contact support.

Beyond Words 

Speech and Language Therapy

 Expressive Language
 Receptive Language
Birth - 3 Months
  •  Coos
  • Cries
  • Makes sounds when happy (cooing, gooing)
  • Cries differently for different needs
  • Smiles when he/she sees a familiar caregiver
  • Responds when spoken to
  • Startles to loud sounds
  • Increases/Decreases sucking in response to sound
  • Appears to recognize familiar voices
4 - 6 Months
  • Laughs
  • Vocalizations
  • Gurgles
  • Plays with many different vowel sounds
  • Babbles with many different sounds
  • Chuckles and laughs
  • Vocalizes excitement and displeasure
  • Makes gurgling sounds
  • Moves eyes towards sounds
  • Responds to changes in tone of your voice
  • Notices new sounds
  • Notices music

7 Months –

One Year

  • Combines consonant and vowel sounds (baba, mama) including p, m, b
  • Babbling in long and short groups (baba and mamamamama)
  • Uses speech or vocalizations to gain attention
  • Uses gestures (waving, pointing, clapping)
  • Has one or two consistent words (hi, dada, mama, milk) around twelve months - sounds may not be clear
  • Enjoys social games (peek-a-boo, pat-a-cake)
  • Turns head towards sounds
  • Listens when you talk to him/her
  • Recognizes familiar words (cup, milk, mom)
  • Begins to follow familiar, routine directions (come here)

One - Two Years
  • Uses many different consonant sounds at the beginnings of words
  • Says new words every month
  • Begins to combine words into phrases (go bye-bye, more cookie, no mommy)
    • Points to several body parts
    • Follows simple directions (Give me the keys.  Throw the ball.)
    • Understands simple questions (Where are your shoes?)
    • Listens to stories, songs, and nursery rhymes.
    • Points to pictures in books when named.
    Two - Three Years
    • Understood by familiar people most of the time
    • Uses all vowel sounds 
    • Boys:  Use p, b, m, h-, w- sounds
    • Girls: Use p, b, d, m, h-, w-
    • Has a word for almost all familiar things
    • Uses two and three word sentences
    • Asks for and comments on objects by naming them
    • Asks why
    • May stutter on words or sounds
    • Understands opposites (big-little, up-down)
    • Follows two-step directions (Get your shoes and put them on)
    • Listens to and enjoys listening to stories for longer periods of time
    Three - Four Years
    • Understood by familiar and unfamiliar people most of the time
    • Boys: Use d, k, f-, n, t, g sounds
    • Girls: Use k, g, n, f-, t, y, tw, kw sounds
    • Talks about activities outside of home (school, friend's house)
    • Talks about what happened during the day
    • Uses about 4 sentences at a time
    • Answers simple "Who?", "What?", and "Where?" questions
    • Asks when and how
    • Says rhyming words (cat-hat)
    • Uses pronouns (I, you, me, we, they)
    • Uses some plurals (toys, kids, books)
    • Uses a lot of sentences that have 4 or more words
    • Usually doesn't repeat syllables or words
    • Understands words for colors (blue, green)
    • Understands words for shapes (circle, square)
    • Understands words for family (mom, brother, aunt)

    Four - Five Years
    • Boys: Use y sound
    • Girls: Use th (this), l- sounds
    • Responds to "What did you say?"
    • Talks without repeating sounds or words most of the time
    • Names numbers and letters
    • Uses sentences that have more than 1 action word (jump, run, play)
    • May make some grammatical mistakes (I gots two pieces of candy.)
    • Speaks differently depending on who he/she is talking to - children, adults, friends.
    • Understands words for order (first, next, last)
    • Understands words for time (today, tomorrow, yesterday)
    • Follows multiple-step directions (Put on your shoes, get your back pack, and go to the car.)
    • Understands most of what is said at home and school
    Five - Six Years
    • Boys: Use -f, v, kw, tw, pl, bl, l-, kl, gl, fl sounds
    • Girls: Use -f, v, pl, bl, fl, kl, gl, th (thumb), -l, sh, dzh (jump), ch
    • Tells how an object is used
    • Answers hypothetical questions
    • Uses prepositions (in, on, under)
    • Uses qualitative concepts (tall, skinny)
    • Points to letters
    • Points to large and small body parts (eyebrow, elbow, wrist)
    • Understands number words (3, 4, 5)
    Seven - Eight Years
    • Boys: Use dr, tr, br, pr, kr, gr, fr sounds
    • Girls: Use thr, spr, str, skr
    • Retells stories
    • Describes similarities and differences
    • Continues to develop more mature grammatical structures (irregular plurals, past tense)
    • Uses quantitative concepts (more, most, full, empty)
    • Uses time concepts (after, next, early, before)
    • Understands more complex concepts (analogies, inferences, predictions, categories)
    • Identifies grammatically incorrect sentences
    • Understands literacy concepts (print awareness, rhymes)
    • Understands more complex grammatical concepts (prefixes, suffixes)
    Eight - Nine Years
    • Boys: Use thr, spr, str, skr sounds
    • Girls: Use all speech sounds appropriately
    • Uses adult grammatical structures
    • Can read and write to learn information
    • Understands synonyms
    • Beginning to understand figurative language
    Nine - Ten Years
    • Use all speech sounds appropriately
    • Uses language for many social purposes
    • Understands more complex and abstract concepts

    *Developmental norms are representative of typical development and should only be used as a guide

    *Adapted from:

    The American Speech Language and Hearing Association (www.ASHA.org)
    The Iowa-Nebraska Articulation Norms (Smit, Hand, Freilinger, Bernthal, and Bird (1990), Journal of Speech and Hearing Disorders, 55, 779-798)
    Identify the Signs (www.identifythesigns.org)